Showing posts from January, 2011

Malware Glossary

Adware - Displays unwanted or intrusive advertisements, or facilitates the delivery of unwanted ads. The Adware label covers a broad range of threats that can display ads in browser windows, open commercial Web sites, and collect data for market research.

Browser Helper Object – BHOs are not inherently dangerous. They are DLL files that are executed by Internet Explorer. Add-in toolbars and sidebars are BHOs, and many of them are completely benign, like the Google toolbar. However, a great number of BHOs function as Spyware, tracking Web usage, recording private data and even displaying ads.

Browser Hijacker – Changes Web browser settings like homepage, search page, error page, and Favorites/Bookmarks. Browser hijackers are a common form of Spyware, affecting millions of computers across North America alone. If your homepage changes unexpectedly or your search results seem strange, you may have a browser hijacker.

Dialer – Programs that access a user’s phone line via a phone-connected mo…

Data Storage Glossary


Asynchronous Replication
After data has been written to the primary storage site, new writes to that site can be accepted, without having to wait for the secondary (remote) storage site to also finish its writes. Asynchronous Replication does not have the latency impact that synchronous replication does, but has the disadvantage of incurring data loss, should the primary site fail before the data has been written to the secondary site. See also replication.
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A two step process. Information is first copied to non-volatile disk or tape media. In the event of computer problems (such as disk drive failures, power outages, or virus infection) resulting in data loss or damage to the original data, the copy is subsequently retrieved and restored to a functional system.

Basic Disk
A basic disk is a physical disk that can be accessed by MS–DOS and all Windows-based operating systems. Basic disks can contain up to four primary partitions, or three primary partit…

Virtualization Glossary

Virtualization will bring a revolutionary approach in the way we do business and even in the way we conceive information technology today. To understand this new trend that is probably going to permanently change the world of IT, please find below some key concepts of the "virtual language".

Operating System Virtualization
Unlike hardware virtualization and para-virtualization, the virtualization of Operating Systems only permits the creation of several virtual instances of an operating system on a physical system, however, it does not allow running different guest OSs.

Operating System virtualization, also called OS level virtualization or shared OS virtualization, virtualizes servers on the operating system kernel level. This virtualization method forms isolated partitions or virtual environments (VE) on a single instance of physical server and operating system.

Leading vendors in this area are SWSoft with Virtuozzo, Sun with its container technology in Solaris and the new AI…

VOIP Glossary

Analog audio signals: Analog audio signals are used to transmit voice data over telephone lines. This is done by varying or modulating the frequency of sound waves to accurately reflect the pitch of the sound. The same technology is used for radio wave transmissions.

ATA: ATA or the analog telephone adaptor is the hardware device that connects the conventional telephone to the Internet through a high speed bandwidth line, provides the interface to convert the analog voice signals into IP packets, delivers dial tone and manages the call setup. More on ATAs...

Bandwidth: Bandwidth is the volume of data that can be transmitted over a communication line in a fixed amount of time. It is expressed in bits per second (bps) or bytes per second for digital devices and in cycles per second, or Hertz (Hz) for analog devices. Bandwidth can also be defined as the difference between a band of frequencies or wavelengths.

Broadband: It is a term used to define high speed Internet connection, generally p…

7 Habits of Highly Effective People

I just finished reading 7 Habits of Highly Effective People.
As always, here are my excerpts from the book:

There are three kinds of assets: physical, financial and human.

“Responsibility: response-ability”

Reactive Language: There is nothing I can do, That’s just the way I am, He makes me so mad, They won’t allow that, I have to do that, I can’t, I must, If only.
Proactive Language: Let’s look at our alternatives, I can choose a different approach, I control my own feelings, I can create an effective presentation, I will choose an appropriate response, I choose. I prefer, I will.

“Begin with end in mind” is based on the principle that all things are created twice.
There’s a mental creation or first creation, and a physical or second creation.
Principles people revolve around: Money, Work, Possessions, Pleasure, Friend, Enemy, Church, Self, Spouse, Family.

Organize and execute around priorities.

Leadership deals with top line: What are the things I want to accomplish?
Management deals w…

Top Ten Tips for Developing a Newsworthy PR Pitch

By Barbara K. Mednick

“Public sentiment is everything. With it nothing can fail. Without it nothing can succeed.”

— Abraham Lincoln

These days, the media plays a much larger role in our lives than it did in Abraham Lincoln’s time. The need to gain public sentiment, however, has not changed, causing public relations to be more important today than ever. Continued growth of the Internet also has increased the influence of public relations.


It used to be that advertising was king, but not anymore. The rise of branding has shifted the priority of the elements that constitute an integrated branding campaign, which also now includes websites, public relations, marketing and other strategies, according to an article in IABC’s September 2004 CW Bulletin.

The article states,“Public relations (PR) has been a key beneficiary of this new order. When once PR was defined as “publicity”, and was nearly an afterthought in the marketing line-up, today PR can be a driver in a campa…

2011 Top Ten Business Books Goal

Tipping Point
Drawing on a fascinating array of research findings and real-world examples, Gladwell presents a concise, elegant, erudite analysis of mass behavioral change that is strikingly counterintuitive. Regarded among marketing and sales professionals as one of the best books on the economics of popular culture, this entertaining read is, says author Jeffrey Toobin, “one of those rare books that changes the way you think about, well, everything.”
"Malcolm Gladwell 2000"

How to Win Friends and Influence
People "Having sold more than 15 million copies, this seminal self-improvement book continues to guide managers in the universal challenge of face-to-face communication. A master of human nature, Carnegie advises that “[w]hen dealing with people, remember you are not dealing with creatures of logic, but with creatures of emotion, creatures bristling with prejudice, and motivated by pride and vanity.” He argues that success is only 15% professional knowledge; the rem…

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

Economic growth is measured in terms of an increase in the size of a nation's economy. A broad measure of an economy's size is its output. The most widely-used measure of economic output is the Gross Domestic Product (abbreviated GDP).

GDP generally is defined as the market value of the goods and services produced by a country. One way to calculate a nation's GDP is to sum all expenditures in the country. This method is known as the expenditure approach and is described below.

Expenditure Approach to Calculating GDP

The expenditure approach calculates GDP by summing the four possible types of expenditures as follows:
GDP = Consumption
+ Investment
+ Government Purchases
+ Net Exports

Consumption is the largest component of the GDP. In the U.S., the largest and most stable component of consumption is services. Consumption is calculated by adding durable and non-durable goods and services expenditures. It is unaffected by the estimated value of imported goods.


Market Timing

Some investment managers and individual investors attempt to improve their performance by timing the market and adjusting their portfolio according to predictions about the market or specific sectors. Examples of market timing include switching among sectors, switching among different countries' securities, switching between stocks and bonds, or switching between stocks and risk-free treasury bills. The effect of correctly timing the market would be to increase the portfolio beta in up markets and decrease it in down markets. For the purpose of this discussion, an up market is one in which the market return exceeds the risk-free rate, and a down market is one in which the market return is less than the risk-free rate.

Proponents of market timing may argue that the market timer does not have to be correct 100% of the time in order to benefit from timing. Some even may argue that for market timing to be worthwhile, the timer simply must be right more often than wrong.

Opponents to mar…

Trading Costs

The cost associated with trading securities can have a non-negligible impact on portfolio return. Trading costs include the following:


Explicit costs - commissions, fees, and taxes.

Market maker spread - difference between the bid and ask prices that the specialist sets for a stock; the specialist keeps the difference as compensation for providing immediacy. For less liquid stocks, the specialist has greater exposure to adverse price movements and likely will make the spread larger.

Market impact - results when high volume trades influence the market price. Market impact can be broken into two components - a temporary one and a permanent one. The temporary component is due to the need for liquidity to fill the order. The permanent impact is due to the change in the market's perception of the security as a result of the block trade.

Opportunity cost - the effective cost of price movements that occur before the trade executes.

NYSE specialists …

Stock Indexes

Stock indexes are useful for benchmarking portfolios, for generalizing the experience of all investors, and for determining the market return used in the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM).

A hypothetical portfolio encompassing all possible securities would be too broad to measure, so proxies such as stock indexes have been developed to serve as indicators of the overall market's performance. In addition, specialized indexes have been developed to measure the performance of more specific parts of the market, such as small companies.

It is important to realize that a stock price index by itself does not represent an average return to shareholders. By definition, a stock price index considers only the prices of the underlying stocks and not the dividends paid. Dividends can account for a large percentage of the total investment return.


One characteristic that varies among stock indexes is how the stocks comprising the index are weighted in the average. Even if no explicit weig…